Japan has never been very receptive to the gospel. Missions have met little response. The work of such men as Xavier and Nikolai was exceptional in bringing thousands to a Christian confession. The work of others has generally produced only handfuls of converts. This is true not only of foreign missionaries but also of Japan's foremost homegrown missionary, Toyohiko Kagawa.
- Axling, William. Kagawa. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1932.
- Eerdman's Handbook to the History of Christianity. Editor Tim Dowley. Berkhamsted, Herts, England: Lion Publishing, 1977.
- Kagawa, Toyohiko. Love the Law of Life. Philadelphia: John C, Winston, 1929.
- "Kagawa, Toyohiko." The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Edited by F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. Oxford, 1997.
- Neill, Stephen. A History of Christian Missions. The Pelican History of the Church #6. Hammondsworth, Middlesex, England: Pelican Books, 1964.